7 Infectious Diseases in Children

Children’s immune systems are not as strong as adults, making them vulnerable to infectious diseases. Not only that, the child’s hygiene factor also affects the risk of this disease. So, what are the infectious diseases that can occur in children?

Various infectious diseases in children often occur

Infectious diseases are health problems caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites.

These organisms attack and enter the child’s body, then cause a number of symptoms.

Here are some infectious diseases in children that are common in Indonesia with information on symptoms and how to deal with them.

  • Wormy

In Indonesia, intestinal worms in children often occur as a result of infection with roundworms, hookworms, or whipworms. Usually, this happens because the child does not maintain cleanliness.

For example, children immediately hold food and eat without washing their hands first after playing outside the house, or the habit of playing outside barefoot.

    • Symptoms of Worms

Some children do not experience any symptoms of intestinal worms. However, if it appears, here are the symptoms of intestinal worms in children that may occur.

  • Often the buttocks, especially the anus.
  • Child’s stomach hurts.
  • Fever.
  • There are worms in the child’s feces.
  • The child has no appetite.
  • The child’s weight goes down.
  • Nausea, or even vomiting.
    • Handling

  • Deworming in children can be treated with deworming drugs, such as albendazole or mebendazole for up to 3 days or more, depending on the type of worm that infects the child.
  • You also need to regularly clean the house and teach children to wash their hands regularly to help prevent the spread of infection in the family.
  • Chickenpox

Chickenpox is an infectious disease in children caused by a virus. This is a contagious disease, especially in children who have never had chickenpox.

The virus can be spread through coughing or direct contact with fluid in blisters or red spots that appear on the skin.

    • Symptoms of  Chickenpox

Symptoms of chickenpox in children usually appear 11-20 days after exposure or after the child interacts with other children who have chickenpox.

Usually, the first symptoms that appear are small red spots on the child’s body, especially the chest, back, head, or neck, followed by fever and weakness.

The spots then develop into fluid-filled blisters within a day or two. After drying, these spots or blisters then peel and fall off.

    • Handling

Overcoming chickenpox in children should be done at home. Children need to rest at home so as not to infect their friends or those around them.

When at home, you can give paracetamol to relieve fever in children and calamine lotion to reduce itching.

Ask your child to drink plenty of water, don’t scratch the itchy area, and wear loose-fitting clothes to make him feel comfortable.

  • Influenza

This disease is often experienced in children and adults due to a contagious viral infection.

Influenza virus transmission to children usually occurs through the air when the sufferer sneezes or coughs.

Not only that, transmission can also occur through hands or objects that have been touched by an infected person.

    • Symptoms of Influenza

Symptoms of influenza in children usually appear one to three days after exposure. The following are the common symptoms of influenza in children.

  • Fever.
  • Cough.
  • Shivering.
  • Headaches in children.
  • Muscle ache.
    • Handling

Children infected with influenza will usually recover just by resting and taking pain medication to relieve symptoms.

Your child may be able to take special influenza antiviral drugs, but they must be prescribed by a doctor.

In addition, ask children to cover their noses and mouth when coughing and sneezing with their elbows or tissue and wash their hands regularly to prevent the spread of the virus.

To reduce the risk of contracting, infants aged 6 months to children under 5 years can get the influenza vaccine.

  • Dengue Fever

This disease is caused by a viral infection carried by mosquitoes. Dengue fever in children is very common in Indonesia because it is a tropical country.

However, most cases are mild and get better on their own within a week of being infected.

    • Symptoms of Dengue Fever

Symptoms of dengue fever in children are generally mild, especially in children who are exposed to this disease for the first time.

However, in older children and those who have had the disease, moderate to severe symptoms may develop.

  • High fever up to 40 degrees Celsius.
  • Muscle pain, bone pain, pain behind the eye.
  • Severe headache.
  • Rash all over the body.
  • Easy bruising.
  • Children have nosebleeds or bleeding gums.
    • Handling

There is no specific treatment for dengue fever. Mild cases can generally be resolved by resting and drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration in children.

If the symptoms are severe, you should immediately take your child to the hospital.

Doctors and nurses can give additional fluids through an IV to replace fluids lost from vomiting or diarrhea.

  • Diarrhea

This is an infectious disease that is very common in children, ranging from infants, toddlers, to older children.

Diarrhea in children often occurs due to bacterial, viral, parasitic infections, or other problems, such as allergies to certain foods or digestive disorders in children.

    • Symptoms of Diarrhea

Symptoms of diarrhea can be different for each child. In general, the following are the common symptoms of diarrhea.

  • The child’s stomach hurts or feels cramped.
  • Nauseous.
  • The child’s stomach is bloated.
  • Fever.
  • Continuous defecation.
  • Dehydration.
    • Handling

To treat diarrhea in children, you need to give them enough water to replace lost fluids.

Doctors may also give antibiotics to children if diarrhea occurs due to a bacterial infection.

In infants, make sure you continue to breastfeed the baby to reduce the symptoms.

  • Measles

Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus that is highly contagious in children and adults.

This disease can be serious and fatal in young children. In fact, in some cases, this disease can cause death.

    • Symptoms of Measles

Quoting from the Mayo Clinic, here are the most common symptoms of measles.

  • Fever.
  • Inflamed eyes.
  • Sore throat.
  • Have a cold.
  • Dry cough.
  • Small white spots with a bluish tint in the center that are inside the mouth on the lining of the cheeks.
  • Rash on the skin.
    • Handling

There is no specific treatment for measles in children.

Your doctor may give you medicine to relieve fever, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen for your child.

Antibiotics may also be given if a bacterial infection, like pneumonia or an ear infection, also occurs when your child has measles.

  • Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an infectious disease of the lungs caused by bacteria or viruses. In children, this infectious disease can be mild or even serious.

Pneumonia in children often occurs in toddlers or under 5 years old.

    • Symptoms of pneumonia

Common symptoms of pneumonia in children are:

  • Fever,
  • Fatigue,
  • Congested,
  • Loss of appetite,
  • And the child coughs.
    • Handling

Pneumonia due to bacterial infection can be treated with antibiotics.

However, for pneumonia due to a viral infection, there is no specific treatment available, and it often resolves on its own.

In addition, children also need to rest, drink lots of water, and take medicines to treat fever and cough.

In severe cases, such as a child with shortness of breath, hospitalization is urgently needed.

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3 Heart Diseases That Stall Children


Who said that heart disease can only be experienced by adults? In fact, children are also susceptible to this disease. In fact, heart defects can be experienced by children while still in the womb. Many experts believe that heart disease in children can be caused by genetics and infections.

Parents who have a history of heart disease are more likely to pass the disease on to their children compared to parents who do not have a history of heart disease.

At 4 weeks of gestation, the fetal heart will form a single sac structure which will gradually enlarge in the eighth week. While still in the womb the flow of oxygen and carbon dioxide will pass through the placenta, so that heart defects that occur at that time will not cause problems for the baby.

Heart defects in babies will be seen after the baby is born and the placenta is cut. Generally, this heart abnormality is characterized by the appearance of noises (murmurs) when the baby breathes, abnormally fast heartbeats, difficulty suckling due to short breaths, growth disorders, and blue skin (cyanotic).

While other causes are infections caused by rubella, toxic substances, alcohol, and certain drugs. Well, here are some heart diseases that can lurk in children:

Congenital Heart Disorder

Congenital Heart Disorder

Congenital heart disease or congenital heart disease is a birth defect in the fetus that occurs due to abnormal embryonic development. This condition generally occurs in 8 out of every 1000 births. These babies usually have problems with structures such as:

  • There is a heart leak due to a hole in the heart septum.
  • Mitral valve stenosis.

In addition, other forms of congenital heart disease that you need to be aware of are:

  • Heart failure which causes a part of the heart that is not fully developed.
  • Tetralogy of Fallot, which is a combination of four other syndromes namely pulmonary embolism, ventricular septal abnormalities, aortic equestrian, and right ventricular hypertrophy.


This heart disorder occurs due to the formation of plaque from fat and cholesterol in the arteries. When plaque builds up, blood vessels become stiff and narrow, making you more at risk for blood clots and eventually a heart attack. This is a long-term condition and often goes undetected.

Actually, children rarely get this disease. However, they will be at risk if they have obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other health conditions. If your child is overweight and obese, or if your family has a history of heart disease and diabetes, your child will be advised to have their cholesterol and blood pressure checked regularly.

Kawasaki Disorder

Kawasaki Disorder

This heart disease is relatively rare, its appearance is characterized by inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body, such as in the arms, hands, mouth, lips, and throat. Other symptoms include fever and swollen lymph nodes. Unfortunately, the cause of this disease is still unclear. You could say Kawasaki disease is one of the most common heart diseases in children. As many as 1 in 5 children who experience heart disease is due to Kawasaki disease and most of them are under 5 years of age.

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