Children’s immune systems are not as strong as adults, making them vulnerable to infectious diseases. Not only that, the child’s hygiene factor also affects the risk of this disease. So, what are the infectious diseases that can occur in children?
Various infectious diseases in children often occur
Infectious diseases are health problems caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites.
These organisms attack and enter the child’s body, then cause a number of symptoms.
Here are some infectious diseases in children that are common in Indonesia with information on symptoms and how to deal with them.
In Indonesia, intestinal worms in children often occur as a result of infection with roundworms, hookworms, or whipworms. Usually, this happens because the child does not maintain cleanliness.
For example, children immediately hold food and eat without washing their hands first after playing outside the house, or the habit of playing outside barefoot.
Some children do not experience any symptoms of intestinal worms. However, if it appears, here are the symptoms of intestinal worms in children that may occur.
- Often the buttocks, especially the anus.
- Child’s stomach hurts.
- There are worms in the child’s feces.
- The child has no appetite.
- The child’s weight goes down.
- Nausea, or even vomiting.
- Deworming in children can be treated with deworming drugs, such as albendazole or mebendazole for up to 3 days or more, depending on the type of worm that infects the child.
- You also need to regularly clean the house and teach children to wash their hands regularly to help prevent the spread of infection in the family.
Chickenpox is an infectious disease in children caused by a virus. This is a contagious disease, especially in children who have never had chickenpox.
The virus can be spread through coughing or direct contact with fluid in blisters or red spots that appear on the skin.
Symptoms of chickenpox in children usually appear 11-20 days after exposure or after the child interacts with other children who have chickenpox.
Usually, the first symptoms that appear are small red spots on the child’s body, especially the chest, back, head, or neck, followed by fever and weakness.
The spots then develop into fluid-filled blisters within a day or two. After drying, these spots or blisters then peel and fall off.
Overcoming chickenpox in children should be done at home. Children need to rest at home so as not to infect their friends or those around them.
When at home, you can give paracetamol to relieve fever in children and calamine lotion to reduce itching.
Ask your child to drink plenty of water, don’t scratch the itchy area, and wear loose-fitting clothes to make him feel comfortable.
This disease is often experienced in children and adults due to a contagious viral infection.
Influenza virus transmission to children usually occurs through the air when the sufferer sneezes or coughs.
Not only that, transmission can also occur through hands or objects that have been touched by an infected person.
Symptoms of influenza in children usually appear one to three days after exposure. The following are the common symptoms of influenza in children.
- Headaches in children.
- Muscle ache.
Children infected with influenza will usually recover just by resting and taking pain medication to relieve symptoms.
Your child may be able to take special influenza antiviral drugs, but they must be prescribed by a doctor.
In addition, ask children to cover their noses and mouth when coughing and sneezing with their elbows or tissue and wash their hands regularly to prevent the spread of the virus.
To reduce the risk of contracting, infants aged 6 months to children under 5 years can get the influenza vaccine.
This disease is caused by a viral infection carried by mosquitoes. Dengue fever in children is very common in Indonesia because it is a tropical country.
However, most cases are mild and get better on their own within a week of being infected.
Symptoms of dengue fever in children are generally mild, especially in children who are exposed to this disease for the first time.
However, in older children and those who have had the disease, moderate to severe symptoms may develop.
- High fever up to 40 degrees Celsius.
- Muscle pain, bone pain, pain behind the eye.
- Severe headache.
- Rash all over the body.
- Easy bruising.
- Children have nosebleeds or bleeding gums.
There is no specific treatment for dengue fever. Mild cases can generally be resolved by resting and drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration in children.
If the symptoms are severe, you should immediately take your child to the hospital.
Doctors and nurses can give additional fluids through an IV to replace fluids lost from vomiting or diarrhea.
This is an infectious disease that is very common in children, ranging from infants, toddlers, to older children.
Diarrhea in children often occurs due to bacterial, viral, parasitic infections, or other problems, such as allergies to certain foods or digestive disorders in children.
Symptoms of diarrhea can be different for each child. In general, the following are the common symptoms of diarrhea.
- The child’s stomach hurts or feels cramped.
- The child’s stomach is bloated.
- Continuous defecation.
To treat diarrhea in children, you need to give them enough water to replace lost fluids.
Doctors may also give antibiotics to children if diarrhea occurs due to a bacterial infection.
In infants, make sure you continue to breastfeed the baby to reduce the symptoms.
Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus that is highly contagious in children and adults.
This disease can be serious and fatal in young children. In fact, in some cases, this disease can cause death.
Quoting from the Mayo Clinic, here are the most common symptoms of measles.
- Inflamed eyes.
- Sore throat.
- Have a cold.
- Dry cough.
- Small white spots with a bluish tint in the center that are inside the mouth on the lining of the cheeks.
- Rash on the skin.
There is no specific treatment for measles in children.
Your doctor may give you medicine to relieve fever, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen for your child.
Antibiotics may also be given if a bacterial infection, like pneumonia or an ear infection, also occurs when your child has measles.
Pneumonia is an infectious disease of the lungs caused by bacteria or viruses. In children, this infectious disease can be mild or even serious.
Pneumonia in children often occurs in toddlers or under 5 years old.
Common symptoms of pneumonia in children are:
- Loss of appetite,
- And the child coughs.
Pneumonia due to bacterial infection can be treated with antibiotics.
However, for pneumonia due to a viral infection, there is no specific treatment available, and it often resolves on its own.
In addition, children also need to rest, drink lots of water, and take medicines to treat fever and cough.
In severe cases, such as a child with shortness of breath, hospitalization is urgently needed.